What you want to do with this type of split is to separate the queen from the bulk of the younger bees in order to deter a swarm. Younger bees, of course, are nurse bees and wax-makers and they are found on the brood frames. The queen remains in the lower section of the split, along with most of the older flying bees which will be oriented on the original entrance. The upper section is made up with most of the brood frames (at least five frames of brood) – with the attendant nurse bees. The upper section will be given its own, new entrance on the board.
Here’s how the division might look after the split:
Step-by-step instructions on making a Pre-emptive split
On the 4th or 5th day after the split, check to make sure the bees in the upper section are making queen cells. Also, close the door that leads in to upper section and open the one immediately below it. Then open the upper door on the opposite side of the hive.
On the 8th or 9th day after the split, you can do another door change, opening the upper door at the back of the hive, and closing the one on the side, while opening the one underneath it. If the bee population in the upper box looks too lean, you can skip this step.
After the 10th day from the split, make no more door changes.
About four weeks after the split, you can inspect the upper section for signs of a newly mated, laying queen. Once you’ve confirmed that, simply move the upper section to its own base.
Meanwhile in the lower section, the colony will have settled down to rebuild. The one or two infusions of flying bees resulting from the door changes will have provided a steady boost of younger bees to keep the field force strong and collecting nectar. If the flow turns out to be stronger than expected, you can always add more supers, but it’s better to be over-generous at the time of the split in order to avoid disturbing the re-queening process in the upper section.